conversationJuly 22, 2021 15:17:55 IST
June 25, Astronauts Shane Kimbro and Tomas Specke Completed successfully Nearly 7 hours EVA (Extravehicular Activity or Space Swimming) to install solar panels on the International Space Station. What do you need to wear a spacesuit and take on such technical and dangerous missions? Surprisingly, one of the main criteria (except for years of astronaut training) is body size.
EVA features blossomed during the NASA Space Shuttle era. Astronauts rode a robotic arm, floated tetherlessly in the air using a jet pack, surrounded the satellites by hand, and built the International Space Station (ISS). They did it all in a spacesuit based on the design originally developed for the Apollo program in the 1960s.
Each suit is a human-shaped spacecraft, featuring a backpack that houses life support systems. A layered pressurized jacket to protect astronauts from the space environment. “Long John” underwear that circulates cold water over the body through a tube to prevent astronauts from getting too hot in the suit.
When designing these “next-generation” spacesuits in 1974, NASA chose a modular “tuxedo” approach. With this approach, different components (upper body, lower body, helmet, arms, gloves) can be combined to suit individual astronauts. Suits come in five sizes, from minimal to oversized, and were primarily based on the male figure. Women were not eligible for NASA’s astronaut program until 1978.
Fast forward Forty-seven years, Kimbro and Peske wore exactly the same spacesuit while working on the ISS, but the suit was designed to last only 15 years.
These days, NASA spacesuits aren’t like bespoke tailoring, they’re like the rest of the outlet mall inventory. Of the 18 suits originally made in the next generation program, only 4 complete suits remain. Challenger and the Colombian disaster killed four people, and others did not replace them after work.
This means that astronauts must fit in one of the remaining two sizes (medium for men or large for men) to be selected for ISS EVA. The first all-female EVA scheduled for March 2019 had to be postponed as only one medium-sized suit was available. Another medium suit eventually cobbled together from a spare, and astronauts Christina Koch and Jessica Meir successfully carried out a groundbreaking EVA on October 18, 2019.
Most EVAs are carried out in pairs, and flight controllers pay close attention to each astronaut’s activities in advance to minimize “idle” time and complete tasks as efficiently as possible. And sort.
Each EVA participant trains up to 10 hours per hour of EVA in a 12-meter-deep pool where astronauts use life-sized mockups of ISS components to practice all aspects of EVA. Receive.
During the actual EVA, the ground mission controller monitors the progress of the astronauts, who can communicate with the ground controller, EVA buddies, and ISS crew as needed.
The universe is a harsh environment. Spacesuits provide protection against radiation, extreme temperatures (range -270 ° C to + 120 ° C), and small particles of debris. To prevent the risk of “space debris”, EVA is scheduled for a low-risk period based on the tracking of known objects.
Astronauts also need to take steps to avoid decompression sickness, or “bending.” Astronauts moving from pressurized space stations to low pressures in spacesuits, just as scuba divers soar from the deep sea, become painful and deadly nitrogen bubbles formed in the bloodstream. You may suffer. Prior to EVA, astronauts “camp out” overnight under decompression on the ISS airlock to help them adapt before putting on their spacesuits.
No one died during EVA, but there were some close calls. The first EVA performed by Soviet astronaut Alexei Leonov in 1965 ended almost in a disaster as the expansion of the suit in outer space made it almost impossible for him to re-enter the Voshod capsule. It was.
And on July 16, 2013, Luca Palmitano appeared in history books in two first books: the first Italian to do EVA and the first drowning in space. A week before his EVA, one of the water pipes in his spacesuit caused a leak. However, this information was not passed to the chain of command and the mission controller allowed the EVA to start.
Within an hour, Luka put almost 2 liters of water in his helmet and left him behind. I’m having trouble breathing.. Unable to look out of the visor or communicate with colleagues, Luka said he was on his way back to airlock safety with the tether.
He and other astronauts are keen to wear NASA’s new Extravehicular Mobility Unit (xEMU) spacesuit, which is currently under development for NASA’s long-awaited return to the Moon, the Artemis program. There is no doubt that there is.
Hopefully the Artemis Moonwalker has more options when wearing a suit. In other words, astronauts have the right ones, even if they aren’t the right size, so they can choose for missions.
Stephen Moore, Australia CQ University School of Engineering and Technology, Professor / Vice Dean
What do astronauts need to do extravehicular activity? -Technology News, Firstpost
Source link What do astronauts need to do extravehicular activity? -Technology News, Firstpost